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Cutting-edge applications of rare earth magnets in the defense industry

Rare earth permanent magnetic materials, due to their excellent performance in magnetic properties, have become one of the indispensable key materials in the field of national defense and military industry, and their cutting-edge applications in various aspects provide strong support for the development of military technology.

Inertial Navigation/Guidance Systems for Precision Guided Weapons and Weapon Platforms

Permanent magnet materials are mainly used in the inertial guidance system of all kinds of gyroscopes, accelerometers, torque motors and other core inertial measurement elements, the range and accuracy of these measurement elements are largely determined by the performance and stability of permanent magnet materials.

The world's advanced combat aircraft, submarines, medium and long-range ballistic missiles, cruise dirty missiles and precision-guided bombs and other weapons most of the use of inertial guidance dirty. Inertial guide dirty system is the use of inertial measuring device to measure the aircraft, ships, missiles and other carriers of the movement parameters (speed, acceleration, angular displacement, angular velocity, etc.), according to which the computer calculates the actual position of the carrier.

Electric drive power system for ships

According to available information, the United States of America's DDG-51 destroyer's advanced hybrid electric drive system using more than two tons of neodymium-iron-boron magnets, the German U212 and U214 class silent submarine's permanent magnet propulsion motors using more than a ton of samarium diamond.

Electrically driven (propulsion) marine power systems have low emissions (exhaust and oil leakage); reduced noise and vibration; can have the advantage of light weight and small size, with certain important significance of the application value.

Radar, microwave communications, electronic station systems

Rare-earth permanent magnet materials are mainly used in devices such as traveling wave tubes, magnetron tubes and speed control tubes. Pulse traveling wave tube is used in ground fixed and mobile radar, airborne fire control radar, electronic countermeasure equipment, etc.; small traveling wave tube is small in size and light in weight, which is suitable for occasions with large dosage, such as phase-air array radar; space traveling wave tube is a special type of tube for space application, which is featured by high reliability, long life and high efficiency. Pulse magnetron is widely used in various radars such as guidance, fire control, altimetry, airborne, shipboard, meteorology, etc.; continuous wave magnetron is mainly used in electronic countermeasures.

Permanent magnet materials are used in the electron focusing system of the traveling wave tube to generate a uniform magnetic field or periodic magnetic field; magnetron is an electric vacuum device used to generate microwave energy, rare earth permanent magnet materials provide a very strong constant magnetic field for the magnetron; high-performance permanent magnet materials can make the performance and stability of the device significantly improve the device to achieve miniaturization.

Satellite, spacecraft attitude control, orbit control system

Rare-earth permanent magnetic materials are mainly used in various types of locking valves, relying on the magnetic force generated by the permanent magnetic materials to lock in a certain position, relying on the ground-controlled pulse magnetic field to change the locking position, which is mainly used for controlling the supply of propellant to the space vehicle, thus carrying out attitude control and orbit control.

The permanent magnetic locking valve has outstanding advantages such as light weight, high reliability and fuel saving, and it is the key device of micro-power propulsion system for manned spaceflight, space probe and various satellites.

Ion propulsion system for space probe

For space exploration, ion propulsion is characterized by high specific impulse, repeatable startup, light weight, small volume, low consumption of work material and long life, etc. Therefore, it has been highly valued by various space powers. It is calculated that a 2000kg satellite requires only 25kg of workmass if an ion thruster is used to raise it from an orbit of 350km altitude to 500km and to maintain the orbit for 5 years.

Ion thruster, also known as ion engine, is a kind of space electric propulsion technology, which is characterized by small thrust and high specific impulse, and is widely used in space propulsion, such as spacecraft attitude control, position keeping, orbital maneuvering and interstellar flight. In ion propulsion, rare earth permanent magnets generate an axial magnetic field in the ionization chamber, which accelerates xenon ions under the action of a high-voltage electrostatic field, generating thrust to propel the spacecraft forward.

The space probe Deep Space-1, launched in October 1998, was the first to realize ion propulsion as the main propulsion system. Hughes also used this technology for the first time on the PanAmSat-1 commercial communications satellite. France is developing a steady state plasma thruster, and ESA is preparing to apply xenon ion thrusters. One of ESA's objectives in launching the SMART-1 probe to the Moon was to demonstrate how ion propulsion could be used to put future probes into orbit around Mercury. Russia's steady state plasma thrusters are used in practical applications. Japan's arc-heated thrusters have passed in-orbit testing on the Space Freedom Vehicle.

Multi-electric engines for advanced warplanes

Multi-electric engine is to replace the traditional mechanical bearing system with an active magnetic levitation bearing system on the traditional aviation gas turbine engine, to provide the required electric power for the aircraft with a high-power built-in integral starter/generator mounted on the main shaft, and to replace the mechanical-hydraulic transmission attachment with an all-electrified transmission attachment to realize the all-electrified transmission of the engine and the aircraft. At the same time, the engine's control system is changed to a distributed control system, and the engine's fuel pumps and actuators are changed to electric drives.

High-temperature magnets are the core components of the new multi-electric engines, and are the key materials for high-power built-in integral starter/engine, active magnetic levitation bearing system, electric actuator and so on.

Permanent magnet products are used in key components of many kinds of high-end equipments

Rare earth permanent magnet materials are widely used in the high-tech applications of weapons, such as high-voltage self-locking valves for high-orbit early warning satellites, remote-controlled minesweepers for minesweeping boats, acoustic generators for acoustic weapons, detonation systems for various types of weapons, and electric drive systems for airplanes, and so on.

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